Research was conducted to evaluate the effects of plastic slatted floors and a deep-litter system using wood shavings on the growth performance of recent commercial hybrid Pekin ducks with actual field conditions. With the use of plastic slatted floors, the feed conversion rate dropped and the water / feed consumption ratio showed an increase (p < 0.05). This is a remarkable scientific result that is economically favourable for the industry and growers promoting new aspects.
The objective was to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of nine sheep populations. Overall, these sheep populations in the study exhibited a rich genetic diversity. The nine sheep populations can be divided into two groups. SUF and DST were clustered in one group, and GMM–BAS–BAM, HUS–STH and DOS–DOP were divided into three clusters. This clustering result is consistent with sheep breeding history. TreeMix analysis also hinted at the possible gene flow from GMM to SUF.
Intramuscular fat is a type of fatty tissue deposited between skeletal muscle fibers and muscle bundles, which is regulated by the number and size of preadipocytes in the muscle, and it is a key factor affecting meat tenderness and juiciness. As a member of miRNAs, a variety of studies suggested that miR-25-3p may play an important role in regulating lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. This study attempts to investigate the role of miR-25-3p in goat intramuscular preadipocytes.
Intramuscular fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Hanwoo is regulated by several genes related to lipid metabolism. One of these genes encodes the enzyme bovine glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial (GPAM). This gene regulates triacylglycerol by gene expression. Thus, our research group has identified SNPs related to the regulation of glycerolipid synthesis in the 3′-UTR of GPAM and verified the function of SNPs affecting intramuscular fat deposition in Hanwoo.
In this study, we examine the correlation between the expression of GPAM and adipogenesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs). Additionally, three novel polymorphisms are identified within the bovine key functional domain of GPAM. GPAM plays a pivotal role in the regulation of phospholipid levels and cellular triacylglycerol, and its mutations could serve as a competent molecular marker that could be utilized for marker-assisted selection.
The mechanism of lipid metabolism is complex, and the manipulation of fat storage for lean meat production is very important in the sheep-breeding industry. The present study aimed to study the genetic profiles of fat tissues and to discover the diversity in the genetic mechanisms defining fat deposition between two morphologically different sheep breeds. Analysis of the diversity of fat deposition may aid the recognition of genes and pathways responsible for the formation of tail fat.
The objective was to find whether cow growth, milk performance, and behaviour are affected by rearing conditions until weaning after a milk-fed period of 84 d. Holstein heifers were assigned to one of three treatments: SM, pen with mother to 21st day, then group pen; SN, with own mother, then in pen with nursing cow; H, in hutch from 2nd to 56th day. The SN group tended to have the highest production of milk for 305 d and crossed the maze the fastest.
This research aimed to determine the effects of body weight, the body condition score (BCS), body measurements, birth type, birth weight and sex on the gestational length in sheep. The lowest and highest gestational lengths were found to be 148.90 and 151.41 d respectively. It is thought that the use of the BCS, which is easily applied by the breeder, will have a positive effect on determining the bodily reserves of sheep and the reproductive efficiency as well as on obtaining healthy lambs.
We analyzed the genetic structure of the casein cluster in eight selection lines of the Holstein Friesian, German Simmental and German Black Pied cattle breeds based on casein genotypes in milk. Temporal changes in allele distributions indicated decreasing genetic diversity at the casein loci, explaining the moderate level of genetic differentiation among selection lines. The variability of the casein should be exploited in the future using breeding programs to select genetic lines.
Water-holding capacity (WHC) is a meat quality trait that affects economic outcomes caused by the tissue fluid loss and weight loss. The present study indicates that the mutation c.-379T>G in the UBXN1 promoter is associated with promoter activity, UBXN1 mRNA level, and WHC. Therefore, it potentially contributes to WHC improvement by regulating the degradation of myofibrillar proteins. It is a promising marker for selection of pork quality and increases economic benefits of the pork industry.
This research aimed to investigate the molecular regulatory mechanisms involving miRNAs during uterine involution in postpartum ewes. We have screened a total of 118 differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamic libraries and 54 miRNAs in uterine libraries. Meanwhile, we have found two miRNA-target gene pairs that might participate in uterine involution in postpartum ewes. The study fills a gap in the research related to miRNAs in uterine involution in female livestock, especially in sheep.
The redox potential of goat kid serum was evaluated, applying spectrophotometric assays intended for both clinical and research studies that can be automated on clinical auto-analysers, thus allowing rapid and inexpensive data collections. Although several correlations were shown, the results obtained with different assays can be strongly different depending on the method and technology of each assay. The present results can be useful to verify whether animals are experiencing oxidant status.
In this experiment, by detecting the mutation in the promoter region of the bovine TRDMT1 gene, fluorescent recombinant plasmids of different genotypes were constructed at this site, and the relative fluorescence intensity was analyzed by detecting the transfected 293T cells. Our experiment detected a natural genetic variation of a tRNA modification gene TRDMT1, which may provide potential natural molecular materials for the study of tRNA modification.
In this work, alpaca wool thickness and medullation characteristics were analyzed based on the animals' sex and color. The wool of females was thinner and had a lower medullation percentage than for males. The share of non-medullated fibers in the area up to 30 µm was also greater in the wool of females than for males. Light wool was thinner and had a lower degree of medullation than dark wool. The discontinuous and continuous medullated light fibers were thinner than those of dark fibers.
This research aimed to investigate the differentially expressed miRNAs related to uterine involution in ovary and uterus. We have screened a total of 16 differentially expressed miRNAs in ovary libraries and 54 miRNAs in uterus libraries. Meanwhile, we have found that miRNA-200a could target ZEB1 and YAP1 to participate in the process of uterine involution. The study enriched the miRNA sets related to the uterine involution in the ovary–uterus axis.
Selection for increased production in intensive and extensive livestock production systems caused animal health and welfare to deteriorate. This is observed in reduced fertility, lameness and claw health in dairy cattle and pigs, resulting in unnecessary culling. In addition, inbreeding has resulted in a number of genetic defects in cows, sheep and pigs. Accurate recording and an increased awareness of welfare traits are necessary to find sustainable solutions.
For local breeds kept in small herds, consideration of classical herd effects implies imprecise genetic evaluations. In consequence, the present study aimed to evaluate different herd clustering strategies, considering social–ecological and herd characteristics. The similarities of herds within created herd clusters and improved reliabilities of estimated breeding values suggest the application of herd clusters in statistical models for genetic evaluations in local breeds.
The effect of wild boars' age and sex on the quality of the carcass composition and meat quality was studied. The highest percentage of lean meat in the carcass and a moderate fat and bone content were found in male boars (1–3 yr). Higher fat content was found in females from all age groups, and a lower bone content was noted in yearlings (1–2 yr) and adult (2–3 yr) females. The chemical composition of the loin was most desirable in adults (2–3 yr) and least desirable in piglets (< 1 yr).
The expression and polymorphism of the BMPR1B gene associated with litter size in small-tail Han (STH) sheep were determined. We found that BMPR1B was mainly expressed in reproduction-related tissues and was more highly expressed in the hypothalamus of polytocous than in monotocous ewes in the follicular and luteal phases. A new molecular marker was found and was negatively correlated with litter size in STH sheep. These results can provide a reference for selective sheep breeding.
Associations of different regions of BMPR1B, BMP15, and GDF9 genes with litter size were analyzed in Ramlıç and Dağlıç sheep. A total of 51 SNPs in Ramlıç and 54 in Dağlıç sheep were detected. The slopes of significant regression coefficients in four SNPs for Ramlıç and two for Dağlıç in the BMPR1B gene as well as one deletion mutation in the BMP15 gene of Ramlıç were in the direction of the rare allele. Candidate QTNs determined in this study could be used to produce more prolific sheep.
The purpose of our study was to investigate whether glutamine and L-carnitine could be used as anti-cold stress nutrients to alleviate the adverse effects of cold stress on newborn broilers. Broilers were respectively fed with different levels of glutamine and L-carnitine according to the L16 (45) orthogonal experimental design for 3 weeks. Their interaction occurred and improved the growth performance, nutritional status and cold stress response of broilers at low temperature.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was used to reveal variation in bovine leptin gene (LEP) in New Zealand (NZ) Holstein Friesian × Jersey (HF × J) dairy cows. This is the first report of findings of this kind in NZ HF × J cows, and they suggest that variation in exon 3 of bovine leptin gene could be explored as a means of decreasing the concentration of saturated fatty acids in milk.
We evaluated the effects of supplementing cattle feed with difructose anhydride III (DFA III) by measuring urinary sterigmatocystin (STC) concentrations. DFA III was supplemented for 2 weeks to 10 animals, and non-treated animals served as controls. Our findings demonstrate the effect of DFA III on reducing the urinary concentration of STC in Japanese Black cattle.
This study aimed to compare the quality of frozen–thawed spermatozoa from microminipig boars. We also evaluated the effects of caffeine and heparin as well as the sperm–oocyte co-incubation length on the fertilization and embryonic development. We found that the presence of caffeine in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium and the appropriate length of sperm–oocyte co-incubation may have beneficial effects for improving IVF results when using microminipig spermatozoa with low quality.
Paula Gomes Rodrigues, Diana Silva Maynard Garcez, Camilla Mendonça Silva, Camilla Cristina Santos Santana, Juliana Caroline Santos Santana, Claudia da Costa Lopes, Evandro Neves Muniz, Gregório Murilo de Oliveira Júnior, Raquel Silva de Moura, and José Camisão de Souza
Few studies have addressed the application of forage palm bran (FPB) in horse nutrition. The results of this study demonstrated that the inclusion of up to 15 % FPB as a substitute for commercial concentrate in the diet of horses did not negatively influence feed intake or nutrient digestibility. Finally, this study emphasizes that forage palm is potentially an outstanding animal fodder due to its ability to withstand the harsh physical–chemical limitations of poor soils.
Tibetan pigs are well adapted to high-altitude environments with a set of physiological features for more efficient blood flow for oxygen delivery under hypobaric hypoxia. We established the anatomy, physiology and molecular characteristics of the lung adaptive intelligence. Our finding suggest that the lung genetic mechanism of hypoxic adaptation in Tibetan pigs is valuable to understand.