An extensive genetic evaluation of cattle fattening performance was performed in this study. Fifteen SNPs in the LEP, FABP4, DGAT1, TG, IGF1, IGF1R, MYF5, LGB, CAPN1, CAST, GHR, and OLR1 genes were evaluated in 296 purebred Holstein–Friesian bulls using PCR-RFLP. This study clearly demonstrated that individual or combined effects of the genotypes at the selected genes may be effective on performance traits at different periods of animal growth and fattening.
Herbs and herbal feed additives are a valuable component in broiler chicken diets, affecting, e.g., health status, productivity and meat quality. In our study a herbal formula was applied in broiler chickens fed lower energy concentration diets. An interaction between experimental factors was not found, although a gainful effect on the productivity was noticed in broiler chickens fed diets with a herbal formula.
Rabbits from five litters weaned at the age of 5 weeks were observed. A number of social, exploratory, comfort, eating, resting and locomotor behaviours were observed. Aggressive behaviour was not observed. The majority of rabbits showed companion and place preference. Significant effects of group size and time of day on the frequency of some forms of behaviour were noted, e.g. rabbits performed comfort behaviour more often in the morning. Sex did not influence the rabbits' behaviour.
This study analyzed the DNA methylation profile of the PITX1 gene and its relevance to lactation performance in goats. The methylation rates of the overall CpG island and the 3rd and 12th CpG-dinucleotide loci in blood were significantly associated with average milk yield. The overall methylation rates of the CpG island in mammary gland tissue from dry and lactation periods showed a significant difference. These results could be used as potential epigenetic markers for lactation performance.
Litter size is an important economic factor in pig production. This study was conducted to investigate litter-size-related epigenetic markers in uterine tissue from Berkshire pigs. The zona pellucida binding protein (ZPBP) gene was significantly hypomethylated in the larger litter size groups by DNA profiling analysis, and this gene can be used as a valuable epigenetic biomarker for hyperprolific sows.
In this study, κ-casein (CSN3) and lactoferrin (LTF) genes were studied firstly in Turkish donkeys. PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of these gene regions were performed. CSN3 and the LTF gene had no enzyme recognition sites with PstI, DraII and MboI restriction enzymes in all of the studied samples. However, the LTF gene was only distinguished with EagI restriction enzyme and three genotypes were identified. The G allele was predominant in the LTF-EagI gene in the studied Turkish donkey populations.
Sarah Currò, Carmen L. Manuelian, Massimo De Marchi, Pasquale De Palo, Salvatore Claps, Aristide Maggiolino, Giuseppe Campanile, Domenico Rufrano, Annunziata Fontana, Giuseppina Pedota, and Gianluca Neglia
Our results contribute to the characterization of milk yield, composition and stomatic cell score of local Italian goat breeds (Garganica, Girgentana, Jonica, Maltese and Mediterranean Red) compared to a cosmopolitan (Saanen) goat breed. The dataset consists of 840 observations from 60 goats (10 does per breed) held under the same managerial conditions. The variability of milk yield and composition traits reported in the present study is of interest to preserve biodiversity of local goat breeds.
Sulfur amino acids, such as methionine, and minerals, such as zinc, are the most important nutrients affecting wool production. This study evaluated an effect of zinc and methionine supplementation on Merino ewes wool features and zinc content in wool fibers. Wool fibers' length, thickness, breaking force and zinc content were higher in the supplemented group. Histological structure of fibers from both groups did not differ. The results are beneficial from the processing point of view.
The aims of the study were to estimate allele and genotype frequencies at g.-274C > G locus in the promoter region of the SIRT1 gene and to investigate, for the first time, the relationship among different genotypes and milk and reproduction traits in the Agerolese cattle breed. The investigated population was found to be polymorphic at the investigated locus. Concerning milk production performance, significant differences between genotypes were found.
Keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are a structural component of cashmere fibre, and variation in some KAP genes (KRTAPs) has been associated with a number of caprine fibre traits. In this study, we identified the caprine KAP15-1 gene on goat chromosome 1. Six variants containing eight SNPs were found. Association analyses revealed that variation in the gene affected mean fibre diameter.
ASIP can regulate the obesity of mice but studies of ASIP effects on bovine fat deposition and meat quality are rare. The L1-BT element inserted upstream of bovine ASIP can cause ASIP mRNA overexpression. In this study, L1-BT element indel, two single nucleide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ASIP, and its haplotypes showed significant correlations with fat deposition traits and fatty acid composition in Chinese Simmental steers, suggesting that ASIP may be a biomarker for beef cattle breeding selection.
Analysis of the genomic variation within a breed is an essential requirement for keeping the breed’s integrity and for defining proper breeding objectives. This research aimed to analyze the genomic structure of Iranian Zandi sheep and showed that a more dense marker is required to achieve genetic gain in Zandi sheep using genomic selection. Attention should be given to adopting an optimal mating system in order to avoid the further loss of genetic diversity in this breed.
The lactation curve and lactation survival are important in dairy cattle breeding. Their simultaneous improvement results in economic benefits. The genetic relationship between the lactation survival and the lactation curve shape traits of milk yield and fat and protein percentages using information from of 25 981 primiparous Tunisian Holsteins was investigated. Cows that had higher persistencies for fat and protein percentages were more likely not to survive.
We tested whether prostragladin (PG) injection on day 30 pp and detection of estrus can affect the efficacy of injection on days 5 and 6 in the TAI protocol compared to the Cosynch protocol. The proportion of cows in estrus on the day of TAI was higher than those that received two PGs than those cows that received one PG. Treatments with PG on days 5 and 6 after the first GnRH injection increased P/AI.
We used lots of Chinese cattle to detect the specific regional variation in the IGF1R genome. It was found that this variation in the Chinese cattle population is related to the weight and height of the cattle. There is a lot of genetic information in this mutated region, which may be the cause affecting the traits. Our study provided a preliminary result for the functional role of the IGF1R variation in larger populations and for an important marker in cattle breeding programs.
Donkeys are an important livestock in China for their nourishment and medical values. Indigenous donkey populations of China retain relatively abundant genetic diversity and Chinese donkeys were grouped into two lineages, which correspond to their geographic distribution and breeding history.
In this study, two novel indels within the sheep SIRT7 gene, 5′ promoter region-insertion-7 bp and 3′ UTR-insertion-17 bp, were identified in 709 individuals from five different Chinese and Mongolian sheep breeds. Genetic diversity within the SIRT7 gene and its effect on body size traits were explored. The findings from this research will potentially provide useful DNA markers for the improvement of economic traits in sheep genetic breeding.
The main aim of this pilot study was to test eye temperature (ET) as a noninvasive tool to explore stress levels associated with a semi-intensive farming system in Blanca Serrana meat goats, developing a stress test simulating routine practices. They showed a statistically significant increase in the ET and respiratory rate stress parameters after the stressful stimulus was introduced, but not of the heart rate. ET appears as an appropriate and noninvasive tool to explore stress levels in goats.
This study assessed the effects of training on haematological and biochemical blood parameters and body surface temperature changes in horses. Changes in body surface temperature and blood parameters in routinely ridden and never-ridden horses are associated with their different conditioning. Significantly higher surface temperature in routinely ridden horses as well as the dynamics of changes in some blood parameters after training may indicate the better performance of these horses.
Interannual and monthly variations of herbage production and nutritive value regarding the needs and welfare of grazing ruminants were evaluated in three grasslands located at different altitudes in northern Greece. The sub-alpine grassland was the most productive, with the highest mean annual CP content. Herbage Ca content was sufficient for the animals’ needs, while protein and phosphorus supplementation should be provided in order to cover their requirements and reach high levels of welfare.
This study aimed to investigate relationships between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations and some body trait measurements and climatic factors with respect to prepubertal goat kids. It was found that there was a significant relationship between IGF-1 concentrations and growth characteristics of the goat kids, and IGF-I concentrations of the goat kids were significantly influenced by climatic factors.
This study determined polymorphisms of the POU1F1 gene and their relationships to milk yield and components, litter size, birth weight, and weaning weight in goats. With the POU1F1/AluI locus, significant associations were found between genotypes with lactation milk yield and litter size. A significant relationship was determined between genotypes and birth weight and the POU1F1/PstI locus (p < 0.05). The POU1F1 gene can be used as a molecular marker for economic features.
The study was to clarify the roles of ACSL5 in regulating synthesis of triglycerides and lipid droplet formation in bovine preadipocytes through vectors constructing and electransfection. Research results confirmed that the ACSL5 gene could promote the synthesis of triglycerides in bovine adipocytes by participating in the fatty acid metabolism pathway. The interaction of ACSL5 with related fatty acid synthase in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway needs further analysis.
In this study, genetic and phenotypic correlations as well as heritabilites for 16 different growth, health, and carcass traits were estimated based on molecular relatedness. Economically relevant production traits such as fillet weight, fillet yield, and dressing percentage were genetically characterized for the first time in this species. Additionally, the suitability of morphometric body measurements from image analysis as alternative selection traits was explored.
Dietary supplementation with either 1.15, 1.30 or 1.45 times the Met requirements (as NRC recommendation) in breeder quails can alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress and improve the performance, reproduction, antioxidant status and immunity, as well as maternal antibody transmission. Supplementation of diet with 1.30 times the Met requirements could be used as a nutritional strategy in breeder quails for the alleviation of the adverse effects of heat stress.
Increased dietary inclusion levels of vitamin E and/or polyphenols improved the antioxidant status of broilers fed low-quality oil. Dietary supplementation with vitamin E and/or polyphenols improved meat quality by better colour, higher concentrations of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, hypocholesterolemic fatty acids and a lower atherogenicity index. Polyphenols combined with vitamin E can be a valuable component of diets for broiler chickens when the problem of low-quality oil occurs.
Elsayed O. S. Hussein, Gamaleldin M. Suliman, Alaeldein M. Abudabos, Abdullah N. Alowaimer, Shamseldein H. Ahmed, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Mahmoud Alagawany, Ayman A. Swelum, Antonella Tinelli, Vincenzo Tufarelli, and Vito Laudadio
This study evaluated the impact of a low metabolizable energy diet supplemented with a multienzyme blend on the growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of chickens. From findings, the low metabolizable energy supplemented with the enzyme complex did not influence most of performance parameters and carcass traits of chickens; however, adding enzymes to a low-energy diet is an effective strategy to improve the meat quality criteria and small intestine characteristics.
The objective of the current research was to investigate 12 STR loci based on genetic diversity in sheep herds as well as the differentiation and relationship among the number of alleles and genetic links between Kazakh sheep breeds. Based on our results, all five populations examined show high genetic diversity because of a high effective number of alleles, a large number of alleles, high PIC values, and 12 completely polymorphic tested microsatellites.
Increasing genetic resistance to gastrointestinal parasite infections in sheep would limit the use of drugs and the emergence of resistant parasites. However, this is a very complex trait. The identification of genomic areas associated with the trait is hindered by genotype–environment interactions. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain information from non-cosmopolitan sheep populations. Here, the West African Djallonké sheep genomic profile is analyzed to contribute to solve this gap.
Most gene mtDNA 16S rRNA studies were with aquatic organisms, insects, and a few mammalian species; no reports involved cattle. The objective of this research was to characterize the genetic and phylogenetic diversity among 12 cattle breeds utilizing gene mtDNA 16S rRNA. The base percentages of this gene had a strong bias towards A + T. Only transitions or transversions were detected. The phylogenetic analysis indicated the existence of Bos taurus and Bos indicus ancestry in Chinese cattle.
Meat chickens are selected for rapid growth for many decades. This fast growth rate causes some welfare problems. Additionally, litter quality is another important factor in chicken welfare. We raised slow-growing broilers as an alternative of fast-growing broilers and we used slatted floor as an alternative of deep litter. Slow growing broilers had better welfare parameters and slatted floor had positive effects on welfare parameters such as foot pad dermatitis and hock joint dermatitis.
Adam Tarko, Aneta Štochmal'ová, Katarína Jedličková, Sandra Hrabovszká, Adriana Vachanová, Abdel Halim Harrath, Saleh Alwasel, Abdulkarem Alrezaki, Jan Kotwica, Andrej Baláži, and Alexander V. Sirotkin
Our data suggest that benzene and quercetin have direct stimulatory and
inhibitory effects, respectively, on basic ovarian functions. Moreover, no protective action of quercetin against the effects of benzene was found. Rather, it was found to enhance the effect of benzene on progesterone release. Therefore, quercetin cannot be considered for preventing or mitigating the effects of benzene on reproductive processes.