In Spain, young bulls are slaughtered about 14 months. After slaughter, the carcasses remain in the slaughterhouse for less than 7 d. The present work collects this information and makes an attempt to analyse the response of the meat during the first 7 d of maturation to the oxidation of the fatty acids. Natural antioxidants in beef ensure fatty acid stability during first 7 d postmortem. Beef from pasture-fed meat includes a higher natural antioxidant content than grain-fed meat.
Heat stress is a global issue that negatively affects the performance of farm animals. In this study, we investigated the effects of zinc from an organic source on some performance parameters of broiler chickens. We demonstrated organic zinc supplementation at a rate of 100 % of the organic zinc in the basal diet of broilers under hot conditions improved villus height and absorptive surface area in the duodenum and jejunum and increased the percentage of intestinal weight vs. body weight.
The state of local breeds is precarious worldwide because of the introduction of breeds with improved traits. Our study analyzes the genetic variation of four Romanian local sheep breeds using nuclear DNA markers. Tsurcana and Tsigai showed an intense gene flow among them and were less differentiated than Ratska and Teleorman Blackhead. The results of this study may be useful for breeding programs and conservation plans since the genetic resources of the local breeds must be preserved.
Adipose tissue (AT) is a multi-depot organ in mammals and is formed in specific locations to meet the requirements of organism development. There are two main regional AT depots: subcutaneous and visceral. AT from various depots differs in composition and function. Based on the function, AT depots can be further classified as white and brown AT. Revealing the composition feature of AT depots will provide valuable information for further research on the fat deposition patterns in buffalo.
The study used 46 Muscovy and 44 mule ducks. The analysed ducks of different genotype differed significantly in the water content, sodium content, and redness of breast muscles; in the water, fat, and zinc content of leg muscles; and in the sodium, iron, and copper content of liver. The sex of birds had a significant effect on the mineral content (Na, K, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu) of liver and leg muscles (except for iron and zinc) and on the sodium content of the breast muscle.
The present study evaluated bone mineralisation (in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC)) and body composition traits using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry three times during growth in entire boars (EB), immunocastrated boars (IB), and surgically castrated boars (SB). Nine body regions were analysed for bone mineral traits and compared for the sex types. Significant differences were found regarding BMD among EB, IB, and SB and regarding different body regions.
Methane (CH4) emissions represent an energy loss. Our study analyzes phenotypic and genetic relationships between ewe CH4 records (using a laser technique), energy efficiency traits and body weight development from their lambs (intergenerational perspective). Large levels of ewe CH4 emissions were genetically unfavorably correlated with lamb weight and ewe body condition traits, indicating improvements in lamb weaning performance and ewe energy efficiency when breeding in reduced CH4 emissions.
Carp is one of the most important fish in aquaculture. For future breeding programs, precise phenotyping is required. CT technology has been used to predict body composition in mirror carps. Back fat has proven to be a suitable parameter for predicting the fillet fat content. The volume calculation of back fat provides better results than a two-dimensional thickness measurement of back fat. The fillet yield can be predicted with moderate results by CT-based thickness measurements of the fillet.
In this study, the effects of using soy oil (SO), poultry fat (PF) and tallow (T) in feed at fixed energy : protein ratio on broiler performance were evaluated. When PF and T were used instead of SO, especially in grower feed, the field performance improved except for mortality. This situation was not seen in slaughter performance except for a few cases. At the end of the study, it was seen that if certain ratios are not exceeded, the use of PF and T instead of SO may be economic alternatives.
Male fertility is important in horse breeding and depends largely on the quality of the sperm. Horses are seasonal breeders with a natural breeding season that begins in spring and ends in midsummer. This study shows that there is an interaction between seasonal effects and endogenous effects on semen quality and fertility. Semen quality of fertile stallions is more influenced by the seasons than that of subfertile stallions.
The full CDS of buffalo DGAT2 was isolated and characterized here.
Buffalo DGAT2 contains a conserved domain of DAGAT and a transmembrane region.
It was expressed in the heart, liver, breast, and muscle during lactating and non-lactating stages,
but the expression in the first three tissues of lactation was significantly higher than that of non-lactation.
The results indicate that buffalo DGAT2 may play a role in the endoplasmic reticulum and participate in milk
The aim at this study was to determine the relationship among the lamb birth weight and the cotyledon surface area (ACSA) and cotyledon size. Data were collected from 101 ewes. This study indicates that average cotyledon surface area and cotyledon size traits (CL and CWi) may be more effective parameters to produce heavier lambs. In conclusion, it is thought that lamb deaths will decrease as a result of triggering placental development with proper feeding during pregnancy.
We tried to find important influencing factors of SHF growth cycle in skin tissue from Inner Mongolian Cashmere goats by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Based on the results of comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed genes, GO enrichment and KEGG enrichment, we found that FGF5, FGFR1 and RRAS had an effect on the hair follicle growth cycle. The results of this study may provide a theoretical basis for further research on the growth and development of SHF in Inner Mongolian Cashmere goats.
Indigenous chickens (ICs) are known for disease resistance and hardiness. The role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in disease resistance is well known. The present study carried out to find out variability at the MHC revealed higher genetic variability at the MHC of ICs over White Leghorn birds. ICs are likely to have new alleles of the LEI0258 marker of MHC. Some alleles were found to be associated with growth, production, survivability and antibody titres to Newcastle disease virus.
Lanping black-boned sheep is a novel and rare sheep breed discovered in the 1950s in China and has the same hyperpigmentation trait as silk fowl. Lanping black-bones sheep has same morphology with Lanping native sheep such as coat color, and horns and tail shape, so it's interesting to investigate the genetic relationship of the two breeds and the genetic origin of Lanping black-boned sheep. Lanping black-boned sheep and Lanping native sheep have great genetic similarity.
Archaeol is a cell membrane lipid of methanogenic archaea excreted in feces. This study, based on respiration chamber measurements, revealed that fecal archaeol concentration offers some potential in serving as a proxy for individual methane emission but that it also cannot be implemented easily on a farm because diet composition, dry matter intake, and the time for fecal sampling have to be taken into account.
The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition and fatty acid content of the muscle tissues of lambs and adult sheep. The results support the inclusion of dietitian-recommended mutton into the human diet and the promotion of the production of meat from adult animals as a high-value product. The sheep industry could benefit economically, particularly in countries where this meat type has not enjoyed a high standing in consumer preferences.
In order to reveal whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 α (PPARGC1A) gene is involved in the process of milk fat synthesis in buffalo, we analyzed the function and expression of this gene here. The results showed that buffalo PPARGC1A played a key role in the lipid synthesis of mammary gland. Eight SNPs were found in its coding region, of which three were non-synonymous. This study revealed that the PPARGC1A is closely related to buffalo milk fat synthesis.
Testicular transcriptomes were analyzed to characterize the differentially expressed genes between mulard and Pekin ducks, which will help establish gene expression datasets to assist in further determining the mechanisms of genetic sterility in mulard ducks. Paraffin sections were made to compare the developmental differences in testis tissue between the two breeds. A comparative transcriptome sequencing of testis tissues was performed, and the expression of candidate genes was verified.
The aim of this review was to evaluate the relationship between the body condition of cows and reproduction. Reproduction was evaluated from the viewpoint of animal husbandry traits, ovarian activity and embryo transfer.
The objective of the current research was to evaluate genetic relationships among indigenous Turkish Karayaka sheep subpopulations as well as genetic diversity. Our results show a high genetic differentiation among subpopulations, which is quite interesting when considered for only one breed. This differentiation should be taken into consideration when preparing conservation programs and future breeding strategies.
In sheep production, the body condition score has the potential to be a useful management tool for producers to lift animal performance especially during pregnancy and lactation. In the present study, it was shown that the ewe’s body condition score at lambing had no effect on lamb birth weight. However, the lamb growth rate and their weight at 30 and 70 days were higher for offspring of ewes with middle and high BCS.
We measured physical meat quality of a slow-growing broiler as an alternative to fast-growing broiler, and we used slatted floor housing and free-range production as alternatives to conventional deep litter. Taking into account genotype × housing system interactions for meat pH and shear force traits, a fast-growing broiler may be more appropriate for fully slated housing and a slow-growing broiler may be more suitable for a free-range housing system.
In this review, we discuss the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) on digestion, gut microbiota composition, metabolism, intestinal morphology, immunology, and growth performance in pigs. We give an overview of the different effects of FOS considering the chemical structure, the dose and duration of FOS, and differences between sexes. In conclusion, FOS represents a nutritional strategy of interest in pigs to improve the beneficial bacteria of the gut, the immunity, and growth traits.
This study aimed to assess drip loss measurements in mutton taken by different methods (EZ and bag, BM) and their relationship with pH values and color. Mutton samples originating from 20 ewes of Istrian sheep were used to examine the effect of the method on drip loss after 24 and 48 h. EZ and BM method in mutton do not provide equivalent results for measuring drip loss. Comparisons of the results obtained with different methods should be avoided or at least performed with great precaution.
Nutritional requirements can be met, and carcass quality can be achieved by using concentrate supplementing (0, 1.5, and 3 % body weight) in the diets of lambs grazing tropical pastures (Panicum maximum cv. 'Aruana' and Brachiaria brizantha cv. 'Marandu'). The finishing period can be shorted with supplementation of 3 % of body weight. The discriminant analysis can identify differences between rearing systems based on all carcass traits. This analysis can be used in carcass traceability systems.
The αS2 casein (αS2-CN) is an important component in milk, but the variation of buffalo CSN1S2 and its corresponding variants are not clear. In this study, 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in CSN1S2 by DNA sequencing. Based on them, 11 αS2-CN variants were inferred and named. There are eight amino acid differences between buffalo and cattle in the sequences of αS2-CN variants. The results provide insights into the variation, characteristics and function of buffalo CSN1S2.
The lipid analysis of commercial lamb meat, from the two main Moroccan production areas Middle Atlas and highlands of eastern Morocco, was conducted. The fatty acid profiles of the sheep meats analyzed showed polyunsaturated fatty acid richness, balanced polyunsaturated / saturated fatty acid ratios, and desirable fatty acid richness. The present study provides new insights into the nutritional value of intramuscular fat of four Moroccan sheep meats reared in an outdoor production system.
The expression patterns of the HPG axis-related genes in rams were analyzed using qPCR. It showed that DIO2 and KISS1 were mainly expressed in pituitary and hypothalamus in both breeds, respectively. EYA3 and GPR54 were widely expressed in both breeds, with significant differences in testis and vas deferens. We speculated that the four genes may regulate the estrous mode in different regions in rams. This is the first study to analyze the expression patterns of HPG axis-related genes in rams.
To speed up the progress of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cattle breeding, kinesin family member 1A (KIF1A) genes were chosen based on our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis results. We detected insertion/deletion (InDel) variation in these three candidate genes in 438 individual cattle (Xinjiang Brown cattle and Wagyu × Luxi crossbreed cattle). These findings may aid future analyses of InDel genotypes in cattle breeds and speed up the progress of MAS in cattle breeding.
In an experiment the longissimus lumborum and gluteus medius muscles were collected from lambs of two genotypes to analyse physico-chemical traits, fatty acid profile, taurine, carnosine, and L-carnitine. Results showed a greater impact of the lamb’s genotype on physical traits of meat than on its chemical composition and content of bioactive components. Muscle type had an effect on meat colour; collagen content; fatty acid profile; and the amount of taurine, carnosine, and L-carnitine.
Sixty-eight samples were collected from Egyptian Maghrebi camels to investigate the association of β-casein gene with milk composition traits. β-casein gene, parity and lactation stage recorded significant effect on chemical composition of milk, suggesting the processing of their milk into cheese and butter at the end of lactation stages of the middle parities of their productive life. β-casein gene may be used as a DNA marker in selection programs for the improvement of camel milk composition.
Here, we investigated the effect of sire line on growth performance and carcass traits of crossbred offspring under standardized environmental conditions. Pigs sired by a synthetic line showed benefits in fattening performance and Piétrain crossbreeds were characterized by a better carcass value. The synthetic line is preferable in terms of the number of fatting pigs per fattening place and year, while the Piétrain line provides increased leanness and carcass cuts.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression level and genetic variation of the ACSL1 gene of the Dezhou donkey and its effect on growth traits. The results show that the ACSL1 gene is regularly expressed in Dezhou donkey tissue. Through the association analysis of the genotype and haplotype combination and growth traits, it is speculated that the ACSL1 gene can be used as a candidate gene for Dezhou donkey breeding.
Recently, consumers have been seeking natural and healthy products such as meat rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, beneficial for health with decreasing the saturated fatty acids. Then, to enhance the meat quality, some nutritional strategies were considered such as using the residues of aromatic and medicinal plants. Then, the use of rosemary residues in lamb feeding increased the polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-3 contents and reduced the saturation index in muscles and adipose tissues.
Research was conducted to evaluate the effects of plastic slatted floors and a deep-litter system using wood shavings on the growth performance of recent commercial hybrid Pekin ducks with actual field conditions. With the use of plastic slatted floors, the feed conversion rate dropped and the water / feed consumption ratio showed an increase (p < 0.05). This is a remarkable scientific result that is economically favourable for the industry and growers promoting new aspects.
The objective was to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of nine sheep populations. Overall, these sheep populations in the study exhibited a rich genetic diversity. The nine sheep populations can be divided into two groups. SUF and DST were clustered in one group, and GMM–BAS–BAM, HUS–STH and DOS–DOP were divided into three clusters. This clustering result is consistent with sheep breeding history. TreeMix analysis also hinted at the possible gene flow from GMM to SUF.
This F94L MSTN polymorphism study demonstrates the high genetic potential of Aberdeen Angus and Belgian Blue cattle. The Aberdeen Angus populations have animal carriers of the AM, OS, DD and M1 genetic defects points. Animal carriers of HY and MSUD genetic defects were absent in the Hereford herds. These facts allow us to conclude that the breeding of the above breeds has great potential for improving meat cattle industry profitability under genetic defect control.
This study provided a theoretical and experimental basis for further studying the molecular regulation mechanism of hair follicle development. EDA and EDAR were both expressed in the skin tissue in the seven cashmere goat embryo stages. Moreover, EDA and EDAR play an important role in the formation of embryonic placode (Pc). After interfering with EDA and EDAR, the expression of BMP2, BMP4, noggin, β-catenin, TGF-β2, Wnt-10b, and NOTCH1 in fibroblasts and epithelial cells changed significantly.
The relationship between HSPB1 expression and muscle growth in beef cattle has previously been reported, but there have been no reports of DNA markers related to meat quantity in Korean native steers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of SNPs within HSPB1 in terms of the carcass traits related to muscle growth in Korean native steers.
This study evaluated the production performance of six chicken breeds under different agroecologies in Nigeria for 72 weeks. Each participating smallholder poultry (SHP) farmer (2100) received about 30 birds. The breeds were ranked (highest–lowest) for growth, laying performance and survivability as Shika-Brown/Sasso>FUNAAB Alpha/Noiler>Kuroiler>Fulani. The lowland rainforest and freshwater swamp supported the highest performance of the breeds. The study could guide the development of SHP.
We investigated stress parameters and behaviours of goat kids from dairy type (Saanen and Maltese) and indigenous (Hair and Gokceada) breeds during 10-week fattening. Dairy kids did not express behavioural or biochemical stress responses during the study. Especially in the last 2 weeks of fattening, Gokceada kids were less successful in coping with a confined environment. It is concluded that indigenous breeds, especially Gokceada kids, are not appropriate for intensive fattening in a pen.