The expression patterns of the HPG axis-related genes in rams were analyzed using qPCR. It showed that DIO2 and KISS1 were mainly expressed in pituitary and hypothalamus in both breeds, respectively. EYA3 and GPR54 were widely expressed in both breeds, with significant differences in testis and vas deferens. We speculated that the four genes may regulate the estrous mode in different regions in rams. This is the first study to analyze the expression patterns of HPG axis-related genes in rams.
In an experiment the longissimus lumborum and gluteus medius muscles were collected from lambs of two genotypes to analyse physico-chemical traits, fatty acid profile, taurine, carnosine, and L-carnitine. Results showed a greater impact of the lamb’s genotype on physical traits of meat than on its chemical composition and content of bioactive components. Muscle type had an effect on meat colour; collagen content; fatty acid profile; and the amount of taurine, carnosine, and L-carnitine.
The mechanism of lipid metabolism is complex, and the manipulation of fat storage for lean meat production is very important in the sheep-breeding industry. The present study aimed to study the genetic profiles of fat tissues and to discover the diversity in the genetic mechanisms defining fat deposition between two morphologically different sheep breeds. Analysis of the diversity of fat deposition may aid the recognition of genes and pathways responsible for the formation of tail fat.
The objective was to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of nine sheep populations. Overall, these sheep populations in the study exhibited a rich genetic diversity. The nine sheep populations can be divided into two groups. SUF and DST were clustered in one group, and GMM–BAS–BAM, HUS–STH and DOS–DOP were divided into three clusters. This clustering result is consistent with sheep breeding history. TreeMix analysis also hinted at the possible gene flow from GMM to SUF.
Research was conducted to evaluate the effects of plastic slatted floors and a deep-litter system using wood shavings on the growth performance of recent commercial hybrid Pekin ducks with actual field conditions. With the use of plastic slatted floors, the feed conversion rate dropped and the water / feed consumption ratio showed an increase (p < 0.05). This is a remarkable scientific result that is economically favourable for the industry and growers promoting new aspects.
Intramuscular fat is a type of fatty tissue deposited between skeletal muscle fibers and muscle bundles, which is regulated by the number and size of preadipocytes in the muscle, and it is a key factor affecting meat tenderness and juiciness. As a member of miRNAs, a variety of studies suggested that miR-25-3p may play an important role in regulating lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. This study attempts to investigate the role of miR-25-3p in goat intramuscular preadipocytes.
The objective was to find whether cow growth, milk performance, and behaviour are affected by rearing conditions until weaning after a milk-fed period of 84 d. Holstein heifers were assigned to one of three treatments: SM, pen with mother to 21st day, then group pen; SN, with own mother, then in pen with nursing cow; H, in hutch from 2nd to 56th day. The SN group tended to have the highest production of milk for 305 d and crossed the maze the fastest.
We analyzed the genetic structure of the casein cluster in eight selection lines of the Holstein Friesian, German Simmental and German Black Pied cattle breeds based on casein genotypes in milk. Temporal changes in allele distributions indicated decreasing genetic diversity at the casein loci, explaining the moderate level of genetic differentiation among selection lines. The variability of the casein should be exploited in the future using breeding programs to select genetic lines.
Water-holding capacity (WHC) is a meat quality trait that affects economic outcomes caused by the tissue fluid loss and weight loss. The present study indicates that the mutation c.-379T>G in the UBXN1 promoter is associated with promoter activity, UBXN1 mRNA level, and WHC. Therefore, it potentially contributes to WHC improvement by regulating the degradation of myofibrillar proteins. It is a promising marker for selection of pork quality and increases economic benefits of the pork industry.
This research aimed to determine the effects of body weight, the body condition score (BCS), body measurements, birth type, birth weight and sex on the gestational length in sheep. The lowest and highest gestational lengths were found to be 148.90 and 151.41 d respectively. It is thought that the use of the BCS, which is easily applied by the breeder, will have a positive effect on determining the bodily reserves of sheep and the reproductive efficiency as well as on obtaining healthy lambs.
Intramuscular fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Hanwoo is regulated by several genes related to lipid metabolism. One of these genes encodes the enzyme bovine glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial (GPAM). This gene regulates triacylglycerol by gene expression. Thus, our research group has identified SNPs related to the regulation of glycerolipid synthesis in the 3′-UTR of GPAM and verified the function of SNPs affecting intramuscular fat deposition in Hanwoo.
The expression and polymorphism of the BMPR1B gene associated with litter size in small-tail Han (STH) sheep were determined. We found that BMPR1B was mainly expressed in reproduction-related tissues and was more highly expressed in the hypothalamus of polytocous than in monotocous ewes in the follicular and luteal phases. A new molecular marker was found and was negatively correlated with litter size in STH sheep. These results can provide a reference for selective sheep breeding.
The redox potential of goat kid serum was evaluated, applying spectrophotometric assays intended for both clinical and research studies that can be automated on clinical auto-analysers, thus allowing rapid and inexpensive data collections. Although several correlations were shown, the results obtained with different assays can be strongly different depending on the method and technology of each assay. The present results can be useful to verify whether animals are experiencing oxidant status.
Associations of different regions of BMPR1B, BMP15, and GDF9 genes with litter size were analyzed in Ramlıç and Dağlıç sheep. A total of 51 SNPs in Ramlıç and 54 in Dağlıç sheep were detected. The slopes of significant regression coefficients in four SNPs for Ramlıç and two for Dağlıç in the BMPR1B gene as well as one deletion mutation in the BMP15 gene of Ramlıç were in the direction of the rare allele. Candidate QTNs determined in this study could be used to produce more prolific sheep.
This research aimed to investigate the molecular regulatory mechanisms involving miRNAs during uterine involution in postpartum ewes. We have screened a total of 118 differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamic libraries and 54 miRNAs in uterine libraries. Meanwhile, we have found two miRNA-target gene pairs that might participate in uterine involution in postpartum ewes. The study fills a gap in the research related to miRNAs in uterine involution in female livestock, especially in sheep.
This research aimed to investigate the differentially expressed miRNAs related to uterine involution in ovary and uterus. We have screened a total of 16 differentially expressed miRNAs in ovary libraries and 54 miRNAs in uterus libraries. Meanwhile, we have found that miRNA-200a could target ZEB1 and YAP1 to participate in the process of uterine involution. The study enriched the miRNA sets related to the uterine involution in the ovary–uterus axis.
Selection for increased production in intensive and extensive livestock production systems caused animal health and welfare to deteriorate. This is observed in reduced fertility, lameness and claw health in dairy cattle and pigs, resulting in unnecessary culling. In addition, inbreeding has resulted in a number of genetic defects in cows, sheep and pigs. Accurate recording and an increased awareness of welfare traits are necessary to find sustainable solutions.
In this study, we examine the correlation between the expression of GPAM and adipogenesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs). Additionally, three novel polymorphisms are identified within the bovine key functional domain of GPAM. GPAM plays a pivotal role in the regulation of phospholipid levels and cellular triacylglycerol, and its mutations could serve as a competent molecular marker that could be utilized for marker-assisted selection.
In this work, alpaca wool thickness and medullation characteristics were analyzed based on the animals' sex and color. The wool of females was thinner and had a lower medullation percentage than for males. The share of non-medullated fibers in the area up to 30 µm was also greater in the wool of females than for males. Light wool was thinner and had a lower degree of medullation than dark wool. The discontinuous and continuous medullated light fibers were thinner than those of dark fibers.
The lipid analysis of commercial lamb meat, from the two main Moroccan production areas Middle Atlas and highlands of eastern Morocco, was conducted. The fatty acid profiles of the sheep meats analyzed showed polyunsaturated fatty acid richness, balanced polyunsaturated / saturated fatty acid ratios, and desirable fatty acid richness. The present study provides new insights into the nutritional value of intramuscular fat of four Moroccan sheep meats reared in an outdoor production system.
We evaluated the effects of supplementing cattle feed with difructose anhydride III (DFA III) by measuring urinary sterigmatocystin (STC) concentrations. DFA III was supplemented for 2 weeks to 10 animals, and non-treated animals served as controls. Our findings demonstrate the effect of DFA III on reducing the urinary concentration of STC in Japanese Black cattle.
The effect of wild boars' age and sex on the quality of the carcass composition and meat quality was studied. The highest percentage of lean meat in the carcass and a moderate fat and bone content were found in male boars (1–3 yr). Higher fat content was found in females from all age groups, and a lower bone content was noted in yearlings (1–2 yr) and adult (2–3 yr) females. The chemical composition of the loin was most desirable in adults (2–3 yr) and least desirable in piglets (< 1 yr).
In this experiment, by detecting the mutation in the promoter region of the bovine TRDMT1 gene, fluorescent recombinant plasmids of different genotypes were constructed at this site, and the relative fluorescence intensity was analyzed by detecting the transfected 293T cells. Our experiment detected a natural genetic variation of a tRNA modification gene TRDMT1, which may provide potential natural molecular materials for the study of tRNA modification.
As part of the development of a breeding programme for dairy goats to support sustainable production, we aimed to identify selection traits measured in regular milk recording. In summary, the length of the animal's productive life, lifetime efficiency, and the milk yield efficiency with respect the total number of lactating days are suitable traits to indicate lifetime productivity in dairy goats. Breeding associations must now decide which traits to implement in the breeding programme.
This study aimed to compare the quality of frozen–thawed spermatozoa from microminipig boars. We also evaluated the effects of caffeine and heparin as well as the sperm–oocyte co-incubation length on the fertilization and embryonic development. We found that the presence of caffeine in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium and the appropriate length of sperm–oocyte co-incubation may have beneficial effects for improving IVF results when using microminipig spermatozoa with low quality.
For local breeds kept in small herds, consideration of classical herd effects implies imprecise genetic evaluations. In consequence, the present study aimed to evaluate different herd clustering strategies, considering social–ecological and herd characteristics. The similarities of herds within created herd clusters and improved reliabilities of estimated breeding values suggest the application of herd clusters in statistical models for genetic evaluations in local breeds.
The aim of this study was to assess the performance and meat quality of meat-type guinea fowl fed commercial diets under two different feeding programs similar to those for turkeys and broilers. Findings of the study suggest that these diets can be used in meat-type guinea fowl rearing without affecting the productive traits and meat quality. However, due to the lower price of chicken feed (due to lower protein content), its use seems to be more justified from an economic point of view.
The purpose of our study was to investigate whether glutamine and L-carnitine could be used as anti-cold stress nutrients to alleviate the adverse effects of cold stress on newborn broilers. Broilers were respectively fed with different levels of glutamine and L-carnitine according to the L16 (45) orthogonal experimental design for 3 weeks. Their interaction occurred and improved the growth performance, nutritional status and cold stress response of broilers at low temperature.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was used to reveal variation in bovine leptin gene (LEP) in New Zealand (NZ) Holstein Friesian × Jersey (HF × J) dairy cows. This is the first report of findings of this kind in NZ HF × J cows, and they suggest that variation in exon 3 of bovine leptin gene could be explored as a means of decreasing the concentration of saturated fatty acids in milk.
Sixty-eight samples were collected from Egyptian Maghrebi camels to investigate the association of β-casein gene with milk composition traits. β-casein gene, parity and lactation stage recorded significant effect on chemical composition of milk, suggesting the processing of their milk into cheese and butter at the end of lactation stages of the middle parities of their productive life. β-casein gene may be used as a DNA marker in selection programs for the improvement of camel milk composition.
Paula Gomes Rodrigues, Diana Silva Maynard Garcez, Camilla Mendonça Silva, Camilla Cristina Santos Santana, Juliana Caroline Santos Santana, Claudia da Costa Lopes, Evandro Neves Muniz, Gregório Murilo de Oliveira Júnior, Raquel Silva de Moura, and José Camisão de Souza
Few studies have addressed the application of forage palm bran (FPB) in horse nutrition. The results of this study demonstrated that the inclusion of up to 15 % FPB as a substitute for commercial concentrate in the diet of horses did not negatively influence feed intake or nutrient digestibility. Finally, this study emphasizes that forage palm is potentially an outstanding animal fodder due to its ability to withstand the harsh physical–chemical limitations of poor soils.
This study provided a theoretical and experimental basis for further studying the molecular regulation mechanism of hair follicle development. EDA and EDAR were both expressed in the skin tissue in the seven cashmere goat embryo stages. Moreover, EDA and EDAR play an important role in the formation of embryonic placode (Pc). After interfering with EDA and EDAR, the expression of BMP2, BMP4, noggin, β-catenin, TGF-β2, Wnt-10b, and NOTCH1 in fibroblasts and epithelial cells changed significantly.
Tibetan pigs are well adapted to high-altitude environments with a set of physiological features for more efficient blood flow for oxygen delivery under hypobaric hypoxia. We established the anatomy, physiology and molecular characteristics of the lung adaptive intelligence. Our finding suggest that the lung genetic mechanism of hypoxic adaptation in Tibetan pigs is valuable to understand.
This F94L MSTN polymorphism study demonstrates the high genetic potential of Aberdeen Angus and Belgian Blue cattle. The Aberdeen Angus populations have animal carriers of the AM, OS, DD and M1 genetic defects points. Animal carriers of HY and MSUD genetic defects were absent in the Hereford herds. These facts allow us to conclude that the breeding of the above breeds has great potential for improving meat cattle industry profitability under genetic defect control.
This study evaluated the production performance of six chicken breeds under different agroecologies in Nigeria for 72 weeks. Each participating smallholder poultry (SHP) farmer (2100) received about 30 birds. The breeds were ranked (highest–lowest) for growth, laying performance and survivability as Shika-Brown/Sasso>FUNAAB Alpha/Noiler>Kuroiler>Fulani. The lowland rainforest and freshwater swamp supported the highest performance of the breeds. The study could guide the development of SHP.
In this study, the meat quality traits and fatty acid composition of Hair Goat and Saanen × Hair Goat (G1) crossbred kids fattened under intensive, semi-intensive and extensive conditions were determined. The conjugate linoleic acid contents of Hair Goat kids were respectively measured as 0.48 %, 0.55 % and 0.65 %. The conjugate linoleic acid contents of Saanen × Hair Goat (G1) kids were respectively measured as 0.52 %, 0.58 % and 0.73 %.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression level and genetic variation of the ACSL1 gene of the Dezhou donkey and its effect on growth traits. The results show that the ACSL1 gene is regularly expressed in Dezhou donkey tissue. Through the association analysis of the genotype and haplotype combination and growth traits, it is speculated that the ACSL1 gene can be used as a candidate gene for Dezhou donkey breeding.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is one of the important endocrine hormones that plays a role in regulating growth and development of animals. In this study, we found two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exon3 region of IGF1 in the Shitou goose. IGF1 mRNA was extensively expressed in various tissues, with high abundant expression in the liver, breast muscle and leg muscle at three growth stages. This provides a foundation for regulatory mechanisms of IGF1 in geese.
Here, we investigated the effect of sire line on growth performance and carcass traits of crossbred offspring under standardized environmental conditions. Pigs sired by a synthetic line showed benefits in fattening performance and Piétrain crossbreeds were characterized by a better carcass value. The synthetic line is preferable in terms of the number of fatting pigs per fattening place and year, while the Piétrain line provides increased leanness and carcass cuts.
Recently, consumers have been seeking natural and healthy products such as meat rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, beneficial for health with decreasing the saturated fatty acids. Then, to enhance the meat quality, some nutritional strategies were considered such as using the residues of aromatic and medicinal plants. Then, the use of rosemary residues in lamb feeding increased the polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-3 contents and reduced the saturation index in muscles and adipose tissues.
We investigated stress parameters and behaviours of goat kids from dairy type (Saanen and Maltese) and indigenous (Hair and Gokceada) breeds during 10-week fattening. Dairy kids did not express behavioural or biochemical stress responses during the study. Especially in the last 2 weeks of fattening, Gokceada kids were less successful in coping with a confined environment. It is concluded that indigenous breeds, especially Gokceada kids, are not appropriate for intensive fattening in a pen.
The relationship between HSPB1 expression and muscle growth in beef cattle has previously been reported, but there have been no reports of DNA markers related to meat quantity in Korean native steers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of SNPs within HSPB1 in terms of the carcass traits related to muscle growth in Korean native steers.
The regulation of glycolysis and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in Gannan yaks at different altitudes were determined. We found that HIF1A and PDK4 expression and glycolysis-related enzyme level were significantly increased, but CA level was significantly decreased with altitude. HSP27 and HSP60 were highly expressed with altitude. These results are useful to better understand the unique adaptability of Gannan yaks, allowing them to survive in hypoxia conditions.
In this work, we analyzed the effects of trehalose on sheep EEC proliferation and possible mechanisms affecting its role. Our study suggested that exogenous trehalose exhibits antioxidant activity through increasing the activities of CAT, GSH-Px, and the expression level of GPX5. The cell line cultured provides a strong resource for elucidating the transcriptional networks that coordinate functions of sheep epididymis epithelium and have greatly enhanced our understanding of epididymis biology.
Pablo Teixeira Viana, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho, Mirelle Costa Pignata Viana, Dallyson Yehudi Coura de Assis, Mauro Pereira de Figueiredo, Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne, Jennifer Souza Figueredo, Lorena Santos Sousa, Hermógenes Almeida de Santana Júnior, Douglas dos Santos Pina, and Henry Daniel Ruiz Alba
The use of cull ewes has been an adopted practice to increase the profitability of the activity. The production of the ewes can be maximized with the adoption of feedlotting. However, feed is known to be the costliest factor in animal production. In this context, by-products such as cottonseed emerged as an alternative to replace the most commonly used ingredients without affecting animal productivity. Calcium lignosulfonate is a by-product that can be used to improve ruminal digestion.