To study whether chicken PLIN1 expression is regulated by DNA methylation, we analyzed the promoter methylation status and expression of the PLIN1 gene, and found that chicken PLIN1 expression was significantly positively correlated with abdominal fat percentage, the DNA methylation of CpG5 at position −490 bp of the promoter had a certain impact on PLIN1 expression. These results imply that epigenetic regulation of PLIN1 might be important for hypertrophic growth in chicken adipose development.
The research was carried out on lamb meat to determine the physicochemical characteristics and oxidative stability of lipids. The analysis was performed on fresh and 14 d aged longissimus lumborum and gluteus medius muscles. The meat aging determined all physicochemical features except protein and fat content. The tenderness of meat was better in muscles aged for 14 d. The muscles differed in the degree of lipid peroxidation in both fresh and aged meat.
The characterization of local sheep breeds, two Slovenian (Bela Krajina and Istrian Pramenka) and four Montenegrin (Bardoka, Sjenička, Pivska Pramenka, and Zeta Žuja), was done on the basis of morphometric measures and indices. The PCA of morphometric parameters extracted three components explaining 96.6 % of cumulative variance. A cluster analysis grouped Pivska Pramenka with Sjenička and Istrian with Bela Krajina Pramenka in two clusters, while Bardoka and Zeta Žuja were clustered separately.
Recombination generates genetic variation and thus affects selection efficiency. Using immunolocalization of recombination proteins at the spermatocytes of males of six chicken breeds, we revealed high recombination rates in the roosters belonging to modern cross-breeds and low recombination rates in those belonging to ancient local breeds. Apparently, the recombination rate decreases over generations due to a decrease in genetic heterogeneity driven by inbreeding and artificial selection.
Selective breeding for milk production traits in sheep using molecular marker technology offers a possibility of selecting accurately elite ewes and rams for milk production traits at early age. Our findings suggest that ovine FABP4 has a role in the variation of the milk production traits which may be of economic importance to sheep farmers. Variation in this gene could potentially be used as gene markers for milk production traits if such associations exist.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the time to sexual maturity and the quality of the initial eggs of Japanese quail affected by in ovo injection of plants extracts: ginger, garlic, oregano and cinnamon. The in ovo use of medicinal herbs may considerably modify both the time of sexual maturity and the quality of the initial eggs of Japanese quail.
The results of this research indicate that eggs from organic farming have a richer chemical composition in terms of the content of nutrients such as calcium, magnesium and zinc compared with eggs obtained from caged hens. Therefore, consumers purchasing eggs should consider the system in which the hens were reared, as eggs can be a valuable source of these elements in the diet.
These results demonstrate that a dietary n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of 4:1 could significantly decrease harmful lipid levels in the blood by controlling the mechanism of metabolic distribution via blood from triglyceride and phospholipid newly synthesized in the liver of cannulated rat.
The aim of the study was to provide useful information on a genome region of particular interest for dairy goats. Thirty SNPs, located within the casein gene cluster, were used to characterize the haplotypic variability of Girgentana, Maltese, Rossa Mediterranea, Argentata dell'Etna, Messinese and Capra dell'Aspromonte breeds, plus a sample of the Norwegian dairy goat. Our findings could help interpret the history of selection of these breeds and represent a potential tool for future management.
The aim of the present research was to determine the
haemato-biochemical profile and blood acid–base status of Croatian spotted goats in a traditional Mediterranean production system. Concentrations of Ca, Na, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and beta hydroxybutyrate were higher in older goats compared to yearlings. Values of pH, strong ion difference, anion gap and z values as well as the content of bicarbonate and total pressure of carbon dioxide were higher in older goats compared to yearlings.
Four indels were identified by sequencing with DNA pool. Association analysis showed that three of them were associated with growth traits (P<0.05). Our results demonstrated that the polymorphisms in bovine MSRB3 gene were significantly associated with growth traits, which could be candidate loci for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cattle breeding. These molecular markers are expected to accelerate the process of molecular breeding.
Resequencing of diversity hidden in the innate-immunity genes of the TLR series in Czech Simmental, its conserved subpopulation, and the ancestral Czech Red cattle showed sufficient potential for infection resistance breeding regardless of the prevailing breeding for production traits on the one hand and a limited potential of diversity preserved in the historical populations on the other. The importance of the characterization of genetic resources to counteract changing infections is implied.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of body weight on the efficiency of dairy cows. Data were derived from 161 commercial Austrian dairy farms. An optimum body weight range for efficiency does exist as the relationship of milk yield and body weight is nonlinear. Specialized dairy breeds seem to respond more intensively to body weight range than dual-purpose breeds. Cows with medium weights are the most efficient. A further increase in dairy cows’ body weights should be avoided.
Sheep milk production and ingredients are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we implemented selection signature analysis to identify candidate genes related to ovine milk traits. The results revealed six selection signature regions showing signs of being selected (P < 0.001) located in chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6, 13 and 18. In addition, 38 QTLs related to sheep milk performance were identified in selection signature regions, which contain 334 candidate genes.
The research was carried out on cows fed with a conventional or green fodder diet in order to determine the physicochemical characteristics and mineral content in milk. The data show similar results except for the fat content, which is higher in milk coming from cows fed with hydroponic barley. Minerals were in the range reported elsewhere. The hydroponic fodder system seems to be an ideal solution in places where it is not possible to grow fresh fodder or where pasture grazing is nonexistent.
The carcass weight and the breast meat production of broiler chickens could be effectively stimulated by dietary factors, such as by reducing dietary crude protein content with essential amino acid supplementation and by applying butyrate as a feed additive. These nutritional strategies seem to be the proper tools to increase carcass yield and to improve meat quality of broilers, contributing to more efficient and healthy poultry meat production.
This study characterises farmer’s preferences for breeding rams and tackles their willingness to contribute to the wool sheep Koundoum conservation programme through their quantified appreciation of the main phenotypic features of the sheep breed in the region. In Tillabéri region, i.e. the Koundoum sheep’s area of origin, the proportional piling tool is first used in 11 focus group discussions of breeders to determine the main selection criteria of breeding rams. The multi-attribute analysis me
Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in a wide variety of physiological processes. They are produced by a series of chemical reactions. One of the enzymes converting such acids is a delta 6 desaturase encoded by the FADS2 gene. Therefore, we aimed to determine possible associations between the polymorphism in this gene and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cattle. An identified substitution could be used as a potential genetic marker for fatty acid composition in bovine milk.
In this study, semen seminal plasma contents and the motility of sperm cells in Capoeta trutta were determined via a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between semen seminal plasma ions and the velocities of sperm cells. Finally, we hope that the present information on the motility parameters of Capoeta trutta in this paper will eventually help artificial insemination in reproduction practices.
Goat breeds in Iran are various. People use goat products for food in addition to clothing. Among goat breeds, the Markhoz (Iranian Angora) is one of the most notable in the northwest of Iran (mainly the Kurdistan region) with valuable mohair. The purpose of this study was to search for a way to genetically improve reproduction as well as fertility to increase their population. Based on the results of this research, a high-fecundity doe can be screened; hence flock parturition will improve.
In this study we performed comprehensive search for QTLs focusing on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with growth and meat traits in sheep. The database contains information about 156 SNP–trait associations (123 unique SNPs) and a list of 165 associated genes. The updated information is freely available at https://github.com/Defrag1236/Ovines_2018.
Kappa casein (κ-CN) plays an important role in the formation, size and stability of casein micelles. We identified a total of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in buffalo CSN3. Based on these, seven κ-CN variants and four synonymous variants were inferred and named. The sequences of κ-CN variants were significantly different between buffalo and the Bos genus. This study can help reveal the different physicochemical and processing properties of milk between buffalo and the Bos genus.
Wild boar meat can be used as a culinary meat, while lighter carcasses have better nutritional value. The carcass weight and the muscle of wild boars affected the physicochemical properties of the meat, causing differences in the water holding capacity, shear force, meat brightness, content of hem-dyes, protein, fat and water, thus changing the technological usability and nutritional properties of meat.