Effect of breed and aging time on physicochemical and organoleptic quality of beef and its oxidative stability
Abstract. In this experiment we used the meat of 16 Polish Red-and-White and Simmental bulls slaughtered at the age of 24 months. Physicochemical and organoleptic analyses were carried out on meat aged for 2, 7, 14 and 21 days and subjected to heat treatment. In addition, the effect of aging on oxidative stability and fatty acid profile of meat lipids was examined after 21 days of aging.
The meat aging process determined all the physicochemical characteristics except for heating loss, as well as most of the sensory properties of meat. During aging, lightening of muscle colour, increased redness and chroma, and improved tenderness were observed. High scores were given for aroma intensity and taste desirability. The highest scores were awarded to meat aged for 7 and 14 days. The evaluation showed that meat tenderness and delicate texture steadily improved until day 14, after which they remained at a similar level or slightly deteriorated after 21 days of aging. Meat from the conserved breed generally had better scores, which could be influenced by better component scores for delicate texture and juiciness, as well as taste intensity. This study revealed no significant effect of breed on the degree of lipid peroxidation expressed as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The amount of malondidehyde was higher in meat aged for 21 days than in fresh meat. Aging did have an effect on the fatty acid profile of longissimus dorsi muscle (MLD) intramuscular fat. Wet aging of meat for 21 days was found to alter the content of capric (C10 : 0), palmitoleic (C16 : 1) and stearic acids (C18 : 0).