Cloning and characterization of MHC-DQA1 and MHC-DQA2 molecules from yak (Bos grunniens)
Abstract. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the processing and presentation of antigens and in discrimination between self and non-self. The aim of this investigation was to scrutinize the structural diversity and possible duplication of the MHC-DQA genes in yak (Bos grunniens). Two cDNA sequences were amplified and designated as Bogr-DQA1 (DQA*0101) and Bogr-DQA2 (DQA*2001) with GenBank accession numbers JQ864314 and JQ864315, respectively. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignment between Bogr-DQA1 and Bogr-DQA2 molecules showed that these two identified MHC-DQA gene sequences had more similarity to alleles of specific DQA1 and DQA2 genes from other Ruminantia species than to each other. The result from phylogenic investigation also revealed that there was a larger genetic distance between these two genes than between homologous genes from different species. The presence of different bovine DQA putative motifs and the large genetic distance between Bogr-DQA1 and Bogr-DQA2 suggest that these sequences are non-allelic. Further, these results indicate that DQA gene duplication occurs in ruminants. This study will be helpful in knowing MHC diversity in common ruminants and will deepen our understanding of the variation of immunological functions, evolutionary constraints, and selective forces that affect MHC variation within and between species.