The impact of the milking technique on the individual animal and the reaction of the animal on the technique were investigated. With the use of objectively recorded data from automatic milking systems (AMSs), auxiliary traits that reflect animal behavior in the milking system were defined, free from subjective impressions of classifiers. There is an apparent possibility to breed cows for AMS systems based on AMS data, though it is imperative to have further validation based on larger datasets.
The coat colour of animals is an extremely important trait that affects their behaviour and is decisive for survival in the natural environment. The trait serves to distinguish between breeds and varieties. Coat colour is also an important economic trait. Understanding the genetic background of variation in one of the most important phenotypic traits in livestock would help to identify new genes that have a great effect on the coat colour type.
Lipid-soluble antioxidants can be more effective for chick development when provided via in ovo (IO) injection than when supplemented to the maternal diet. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of egg weight and IO injection of α-tocopherol on chick development, hatching performance and lipid-soluble antioxidant concentrations in residual yolk sac and tissue of quail chick. IO α-tocopherol injection affected concentrations of tissue-specific lipid-soluble antioxidants in quail chicks.
Developmental changes in testicular parameters and their association with plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and testosterone in male Murrah buffaloes were determined. Plasma T4 and testosterone increased significantly with age. Plasma T4 levels were positively correlated with testicular parameters and plasma testosterone, whereas plasma T3 was not associated with either. This study demonstrated the developmental and steroidogenic effects of thyroid hormones on the testis.
The meta-analysis demonstrated that the relationships of major milk protein genes with other factors should be examined using the codominant genetic model in general. According to results of the meta-analysis, relationships among some CSN3 genotypes and fat yield, fat content, and protein content, and relationships among some BLG genotypes and daily milk yield, fat content, protein yield, and protein content were found statistically significant (p < 0.05).
Milk coagulation properties and major mineral contents in Pinzgauer dual-purpose cattle breed were characterized. The dataset consisted of 7763 milk observations from 851 cows reared in 60 herds in the Alpine area of Bolzano province (Italy). Our results showed that Pinzgauer breed produced milk with better coagulation properties and mineral content, from a technological point of view, in first than later parities and in early than late lactation.
In sheep production, the body condition scores and parities are important environmental factors affecting lamb yield. Extreme body condition scores (fattening state) lead to negative effects on lamb yield. In the present study, it was revealed that ewes with medium and fat body condition scores (BCS: 2.5–4.0) were profitable. It was shown that the body condition score had minimal effects on the birth weights of lambs, and the incidence of dystocia was increased in thin and very fat ewes.
For scientific discussions it is necessary to clearly define the terms used; otherwise, scientific statements are open to interpretation which hampers the scientific progress. A clear specification of scientific terms can be reached via mathematical definitions. In this paper, four mathematical definitions of the term "breed" for gonochoric species are proposed. Although all proposed definitions are consistent with common word-based definitions, the result of the whippet test differs.
Wet brewers grain (WBG) is successfully used in animal nutrition, especially in ruminants. The low cost of this fodder also has a positive impact on the economics of production. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of WBG to lamb feed on growth, slaughter value and meat quality. Lambs fed WBG were characterized by higher daily gains and better meat quality. The results indicate that WBG could be used in slaughter lamb production as a source of cheap fodder.
The quantity and quality of beef can be increased through crossing beef bulls with dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to compare carcass traits in young bulls and steers, produced by crossing Holstein-Friesian cows with Hereford bulls. Meat from steers had higher intramuscular fat content and was tenderer and juicier than meat from bulls. Steer IMF was characterized by a more desirable n-6 / n-3 PUFA ratio. Beef from steers is a good choice for consumers who appreciate high-quality meat.