Prevalence of metabolic disorders and effect on subsequent daily milk quantity and quality in Holstein cows
- 1Department for Special Zootechnique, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer, Kralja Petra Svačića 1d, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
- 2Department for Animal Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer, Kralja Petra Svačića 1d, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
- 3Department of Animal Science, Biotechnical faculty, University of Ljubljana, Groblje 3, SI-1230, Domžale, Slovenia
Abstract. Aiming at the determination of the metabolic disorder prevalence as well as the effect of subclinical disorders on daily milk traits of Holsteins, over 1 million (1 962 831) test day records were analysed. The metabolic disorder (ketosis or acidosis) prevalence was indicated by the fat-to-protein (F ∕ P) ratio, while subclinical disorder was indicated by the F ∕ P ratio and cows' daily production. The effect of subclinical disorders on daily milk traits was tested by Scheffe's method (SAS/STAT). The highest ketosis prevalence occurred in early lactation. In first-parity cows ketosis prevalence was highest in the first 15 days of lactation, while in cows in higher lactations, the prevalence peak occurred on the 25th day. A higher ketosis prevalence during the entire lactation was observed in multiparous cows compared to first-parity cows. Regarding the acidosis prevalence, high values were determined at the beginning of the lactation with a decreasing trend until mid-lactation, when the prevalence increased up to 22 %. The highest decrease in daily milk yield as a consequence of subclinical ketosis was determined as 4.21 and 3.72 kg day−1 in first-parity cows and those with more than four lactations, respectively. A significant negative effect of subclinical acidosis on daily milk yield (2.79 kg day−1) was highest in cows in the third lactation. A production decline in subsequent milk controls due to subclinical ketosis or acidosis in all cows was also determined. Subclinical disorders also significantly alter daily milk quality. This indicates that the test day records could be used as a cost-effective and non-invasive method for monitoring herd health.