Journal cover Journal topic
Archives Animal Breeding Archiv Tierzucht
Journal topic

Journal metrics

Journal metrics

  • IF value: 0.991 IF 0.991
  • IF 5-year value: 1.217 IF 5-year
    1.217
  • CiteScore value: 2.0 CiteScore
    2.0
  • SNIP value: 1.055 SNIP 1.055
  • IPP value: 1.27 IPP 1.27
  • SJR value: 0.425 SJR 0.425
  • Scimago H <br class='hide-on-tablet hide-on-mobile'>index value: 28 Scimago H
    index 28
  • h5-index value: 13 h5-index 13
Supported by
Logo Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology Logo Leibniz Association
Volume 43, issue 5
Arch. Anim. Breed., 43, 441–450, 2000
https://doi.org/10.5194/aab-43-441-2000
© Author(s) 2000. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Arch. Anim. Breed., 43, 441–450, 2000
https://doi.org/10.5194/aab-43-441-2000
© Author(s) 2000. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  10 Oct 2000

10 Oct 2000

Mechanismen der Bewältigung von Stress

E. von Borell E. von Borell
  • Institut für Tierzucht und Tierhaltung mit Tierklinik der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Adam-Kuckhoff-Str. 35, 06108 Halle/S, Germany

Abstract. Title of the paper: Coping strategies during stress
The response to Stressors requires a progression of events beginning with sensing and signalling the animal's various biological mechanisms that a threat exists. These events are followed by activation of neurophysiological mechanisms to mount a biological effort to resist and prevent major damage. The various sensory detectors not only receive the information but transform that information into neural signals that are transmitted to either or botn cognitive and non-cognitive centres of the nervous system to generate a co-ordinated response to the challenge.

The hypothalamic-adrenal medullary system involves the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, the sympathetic neural pathways to the adrenal medulla, and the release of epinephrine by the adrenal gland. This short acting stressresponse was originally proposed by W. Cannon and is referred to as the Fight-Flight Syndrome (FFS). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) stress-response System represents a longer-term, sustained response to Stressors and was conceptualised by Hans Selye (General Adaptation Syndrome, GAS). The major adrenal cortical hormones are corticosteroids and aldosterone. These two classical stress response Systems have been linked to different coping pattern in that FFS is primarily activated in situations of threat of control, whereas the pituitary-adrenocortical System is activated in situations of loss of control. Besides these classical physiological Systems other Systems are activated during stress, including the immune system. Recent research suggests that the endocrine, immune and central nervous Systems interact and respond to stressful Stimuli in a co-ordinated manner. The presence of hormones, neurotransmitters and receptors common to all three Systems Supports the view that communication exists between these Systems.

Psychological Stressors perceived as threats may be equally important as those of a physical nature in challenging coping mechanisms. Situations of uncertainty, social pressure and fear are potent Stressors with relevance for the well-being of animals, leading to severe damage to specific target organs and tissues or even to death in some species. Studies on stress responses in farm animals are often conducted on the basis of single physiological alterations or irregular behavioural phenomena that might be difficult to interpret. Non-invasive methods for measuring stress-indicating parameters have been developed in addition to classical descriptive behavioural observations, allowing an evaluation of stress by multiple criteria under different housing conditions and handling procedures.

Download
Citation